Various properties of these systems are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground state configurations, the collective oscillations and the dynamics of the expansion, the condensate fraction and the thermodynamic functions.
For atomic hydrogen, the laser-cooling step is replaced by cryogenic cooling. Bosons, on the other hand, do not obey the exclusion principle, and any number can exist in the same state.
Mean-field theory provides a framework to understand the main features of the condensation and the role of interactions between particles. Effects of superfluidity including the existence of quantized vortices and the reduction of the moment of inertia are discussed, as well as the consequences of coherence such as the Josephson effect and interference phenomena.
The review also assesses the accuracy and limitations of the mean-field approach. The phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases in traps is reviewed from a theoretical perspective.
The light that the condensate emits is similar to laser light. For the purpose of answering, I assume this refers to the relatively recent phenomenon of Bose-Einstein Condensation in dilute atomic vapors first produced in in Colorado.
These results have implications for any real situation involving random graphs, including the world wide web, social networks, and financial markets. In quantum mechanicsthe energy of a bound particle is limited to a set of discrete values, called energy levels.
The experiments on alkali vapors lithium, rubidium, and sodium use several laser-cooling techniques as precooling, then hold the atoms in a magnetic trap and cool them further by forced evaporative cooling. The most intriguing property of BECs is that they can slow down light.
For example, an electron is a fermion, while a photon or a helium atom is a boson. The primary application of atomic BEC systems is in basic research areas at the moment, and will probably remain so for the foreseeable future. This is not the same as cooling everything to absolute zero, where you would also have everything in the lowest energy state— at the temperatures where BEC occurs, if you ignored their quantum character, you would expect the particles in the BEC to be distributed over a bunch of different states, moving with different amounts of energy.
In contrast, the matter wavelength of atoms at room temperature is only 0. This is how we can turn distance into time," explains staff scientist Tommi Hakala.
The overall phenomenon of Bose-Einstein Condensation is closely related to superconductivity in a very loose sense, you can think of the superconducting transition in a metal as the formation of a BEC of pairs of electronsand that application would trump everything else.
Indeed, atom lasers based on Bose-Einstein condensation have been realized. This is not by any stretch a comprehensive list of things people are doing with BEC, just some of the more popular areas over the last couple of years.
Other areas that people are working on actively include ultracold chemistry— sticking atoms from a BEC together to make molecules, or trying to directly condense a gas of molecules— and the study of strongly-interacting systems— there was a paper not long ago about some sort of black hole analogue in a BEC system, and if you crank the interaction strength up, you can apparently get into some interesting many-body physics.
We can poke it and prod it and look at this stuff in a way no one has been able to before. An important characteristic of a fermion is that it obeys the Pauli exclusion principlewhich states that no two fermions may occupy the same state.
A conventional light laser emits a beam of coherent photons; they are all exactly in phase and can be focused to an extremely small, bright spot. Phillips shared the Nobel Prize for Physics. The former type, called bosonsincludes photons, whose spin is 1.
In particular, a perfect analogy  could be drawn between the mathematics of the network and the mathematics of a Bose gas if each node in the network were thought of as an energy level, and each link as a particle.the condensate existence.
This is why the direct observation of Bose-Einstein condensation of trapped atoms has become so important and intensively studied phenomenon . The trapped Bose gases are dilute and can be cooled down to very low temperatures.
Usually, they also are weakly interacting. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.
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The author presents a tutorial review of some ideas that are basic to our current understanding of the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in the dilute atomic alkali gases, with special emphasis on the case of.
Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a state of matter in which separate atoms or subatomic particles, cooled to near absolute zero (0 K, − °C, or − °F; K = kelvin), coalesce into a single quantum mechanical entity—that is, one that can be described by a wave function—on a near-macroscopic scale.
Critical Temperature of Bose-Einstein Condensation of Hard-Sphere Gases Peter Grüter and David Ceperley* the theoretical investigation of this phenomenon.
In this Letter we study hard-sphere bosons of diametera conﬁned In order to quantify this understanding of the shift of the critical temperature, we have determined the two. Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is a phenomenon that occurs in a macroscopic system of bosons (particles obeying Bose-Einstein statistics) at low temperatures: a nonzero fraction of all the particles in the system (thus a macroscopic number of particles) occupy a singleM one-particle state.Download