At this stage people begin to develop their ideas of universal moral principles and will consider them the right thing to do regardless of what the laws of a society are.
Thus, Kant argues that one should not lie under any circumstance. Retrieved 20 July Am I taking into account the thinking of others?
Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them.
He believed that the objective of moral education is the reinforcement of children to grow from one stage to an upper stage. Is this the central idea to focus on? Human behavior has consequences for the welfare of others. How does that bear on the question?
This overarching maxim must be considered when applying the four aforementioned steps. In this phase people begin to view the intentions behind actions as more important than their consequences.
Developing as an insightful ethical reasoner and person takes time and much practice. Development of Moral Understanding. Psychology of Women Quarterly Vol. He agrees with Haidt that moral intuition plays a significant role in the way humans operate.
Markman, Handbook of Child Psychology volume 3, 4th ed. Breadth Do we need to look at this from another perspective? However, Blasi suggests that people use moral reasoning more than Haidt and other cognitive scientists claim. What are some of the complexities of this question?
Which of these facts are most important? Explorations in moral psychology pp. Even though the outcome is the same, people are more forgiving because of the good intention of saving the dog. Ethical Reasoning The proper role of ethical reasoning is to highlight acts of two kinds: According to Paul and Elder, the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and better reasoning.
Since mass international suicide would not be a good thing, the act of suicide is immoral. These tendencies can be actively combated only through the systematic cultivation of fair-mindedness, honesty, integrity, self-knowledge, and deep concern for the welfare of others.
How could we find out if that is true? Retrieved 21 July Precision Could you be more specific?The Elements of Ethical Reasoning.
(Ethical reasoning has the same basic structures that Language as a Guide to Ethical Reasoning. ethical reasoning must be clear, accurate, precise, relevant, logical and non-trivial. In some. 8 Elements of Reasoning There are eight elements of thoughts in reasoning. These elements can be associated with each other and even categorized into four categories.
The four categories are deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical. The first category is the deductive reasoning which covers two elements and those are “Implications and %(2). The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning.
Good critical thinking requires having a command of these standards. According to Paul and Elder (,), the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and. Lawrence Kohlberg is a psychologist who has made significant contributions to the field of moral reasoning by creating a theory of moral development.
His theory is a "widely accepted theory that provides the basis for empirical evidence on the influence of human decision making on ethical behavior.".
It lays out: the function of ethics, its main impediments, the social counterfeits of ethics, the elements of ethical reasoning, important ethical abilities and traits, the vocabulary of ethics, and the intellectual standards essential to the assessment of ethical reasoning.
WESTERN MICHIGAN UNIVERSilY Center for the Study of Ethics in Society Ethical Reasoning and Analysis: The Elements Martin Benjamin Michigan State University.Download